What is cervical dysplasia? Does this complication cause cancer?

Cervical dysplasia is a pre-cancerous condition that is more common in women under 30 years of age due to the increase in the prevalence of human papilloma virus. If you have dysplasia or your diagnostic tests are suspicious, stay with us in this article. Next, we will explain what is dysplasia? What symptoms does it cause? What is the cause of it? What are the side effects if not treated? How can it be recognized? Is there a way to cure it? How is it different from cancer and how can it be prevented? If you have dysplasia or human papillomavirus, you should visit a gynecologist for diagnosis or treatment. You can contact a gynecologist through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. What is cervical dysplasia? Cervical dysplasia is one of the cervical diseases. The cervix is ​​the part that connects the uterus to the vagina. This is a precancerous condition and abnormal cells are formed in the surface lining of the cervix or endocervical canal. A sexually transmitted infection called human papilloma virus (HPV) causes this problem. This virus affects between 250,000 and one million women in the US alone each year. Cervical dysplasia can occur at any age. But people between 25 and 35 years old are more affected by it. Cervical cancer can be prevented by treating and managing this disease. Cervical cancer screening has been done in all countries for more than 50 years. But unfortunately, the second cancer that kills many women is cervical cancer. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cervical cells spread deep into the cervix or other tissues and organs. Cervical cancer usually affects women over 40 years old. Cervical dysplasia can occur at any age. But people between 25 and 35 years old are more affected by it. In this image, you can see the changes in the cells of the cervix. Cervical dysplasia symptoms Cervical dysplasia usually has no symptoms. A doctor can diagnose it during a pelvic exam or Pap smear test. As cancer approaches, a person may experience spotting during sex or abnormal bleeding between periods. Cervical cancer symptoms include the following, and in these conditions, pre-cancerous cells have turned into cancerous cells. If you have any suspicious symptoms related to cervical cancer or suspect that you have sexually transmitted diseases, be sure to see a gynecologist. You can consult a gynecologist through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. The cause of cervical dysplasia is the human papilloma virus. Usually, sexually active women under the age of 30 suffer from this problem. The cause of cervical dysplasia The most important cause of cervical dysplasia is the human papilloma virus or HPV, which leads to genital warts. Many women with dysplasia have had this virus. Usually, sexually active women under the age of 30 suffer from this problem. In many cases, the immune system destroys the human papilloma virus and there is no problem. But in some people, HPV disease continues and this infection can lead to cervical dysplasia. There are 100 different types of HPV and about one third of them are transmitted through sexual intercourse. Among them, HPV 16 and HPV 18 are more dangerous and the probability of cells becoming cancerous in them is high. Human papilloma virus is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse such as vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. Sometimes this virus can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact of an infected person. According to research, about 75% of sexually active women will be infected with the HPV virus during their lifetime. In 50% of cases, the virus is gone by itself, but sometimes it can cause cervical cells to become abnormal. Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Cervical dysplasia risk factors As we said, the main cause of cervical dysplasia is the HPV virus. Women with the following conditions are more susceptible to contracting the human papilloma virus, and as a result, they are more likely to develop dysplasia. Early initiation of sexual activity Having multiple sexual partners Having sex with a person who has multiple sexual partners. Having sex with an uncircumcised man. According to webmd regarding the factors affecting cervical dysplasia: the possibility of severe cervical dysplasia in smokers with chronic HPV infection is twice as high as in non-smokers; Because smoking suppresses the immune system. Chronic HPV infection and cervical dysplasia are associated with other factors that weaken the immune system, such as treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for certain diseases or after organ transplantation and HIV infection. Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia, since cervical dysplasia does not have any symptoms, to diagnose it, the doctor must perform a pelvic examination and Pap smear test. Through these two tests, any changes in cervical cells are detected. If cervical cancer is detected early, it can be treated like any other cancer and its risks are reduced. By performing a pap smear test, in addition to detecting abnormal cells, various types of fungal or bacterial infections are also detected and the cause of cervical inflammation is determined. In the following, we explain these two detection methods. 1. Pelvic examination To perform a pelvic examination, you should lie on the examination bed and place your feet on the stirrups. The gynecologist inserted a tool called a speculum into the vagina to keep the vaginal wall open. With this, the doctor can observe the vagina and cervix and, if needed, collect a sample for a pap smear test. 2. Pap smear test, the doctor uses a special brush to sample the changed cells of the cervix. This sample is sent to a laboratory to diagnose cancer, precancerous cells, or non-cancerous conditions such as inflammation and infection. If a suspicious case is observed in the Pap smear test, the doctor will probably perform another Pap smear test. Sometimes a colposcopy test is necessary. 3. Colposcopy test If the pap smear test is suspicious, a colposcopy test is performed to more accurately detect changes in the cells of the cervix. To perform this test, you must lie on the examination bed. Acetic acid is placed on the cervix. The doctor uses a tool called a colposcope to closely observe the changes in the cervix. Colposcope is an electric microscope and shows changes in the cervix as white areas. The greater the amount of white areas, the more signs of cervical dysplasia progress. In the colposcopy test, the specialist can observe the changes in the cells of the cervix with a microscope. 4. Cervical Biopsy Sometimes it is necessary to perform a biopsy test from the cervix to accurately diagnose the cells as cancerous. In this test, some of the cervical tissue is removed and examined in the laboratory. Cervical biopsy is the most reliable method to diagnose cervical cells as cancerous. If you are infected with the HPV virus, you should see a gynecologist for a timely diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. You can communicate with the obstetrician through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. Cervical Dysplasia Treatment There are different methods to treat cervical dysplasia. The doctor chooses one of the treatment methods according to the progress of the disease, the patient’s age and other conditions. Some treatment methods can affect pregnancy; Therefore, if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant in the future, be sure to consult a gynecologist about this. You can contact the specialist in person, online or by phone through the doctor’s website. 1. Monitoring for abnormal cells If cervical dysplasia is mild, no treatment is needed. In many cases, this complication is treated by itself. In only 1% of cases, dysplasia will turn into cervical cancer. In this situation, the pap smear test should be repeated regularly. If mild dysplasia lasts more than two years or progresses to moderate to severe dysplasia, treatment should be done. 2. Removal or destruction of abnormal cells If cervical dysplasia is severe, the doctor must remove the abnormal cells. The following methods are used to eliminate these cells. Cell removal with loop electrosurgery: In this method, a small wire loop with an electric charge is used to remove abnormal cells. Sometimes they use this method to take samples and check them in the laboratory. About 1 to 2% of people experience complications such as delayed bleeding or cervical stenosis after this procedure. Conization (cone biopsy with a cold knife): In this procedure, a cone of tissue is removed from the abnormal cells of the cervix. In the past, this method was usually recommended for the treatment of dysplasia. But nowadays, they use it only in severe cases. Its complications are a little more and include bleeding after surgery and cervical stenosis. Hysterectomy: In this surgical procedure, the uterus is removed. If the dysplasia does not stop or improve with other methods, this method is the last option. To treat dysplasia, the doctor can remove the abnormal cells. Prevention of cervical dysplasia The only way to prevent cervical dysplasia is to prevent HPV infection. If you have the human papilloma virus, you should regularly do a pap smear test to prevent dysplasia, to know if you have it and the progress of the disease. To prevent HPV infection, pay attention to the following measures. Get the HPV vaccine. One of the vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration is the Gardasil vaccine, which is usually administered to people aged 9 to 26 years. If you are between 27 and 45 years old, consult your doctor about this vaccine. Have safe sex. Do not have any type of vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone who has had multiple sexual partners. Use a condom during sex. Do regular pap smear tests. From the age of 21 to 29, it is necessary to perform a Pap smear test once a year. After the age of 30, do this test every 5 years. Do not smoke. People who smoke or use tobacco products are more prone to dysplasia, especially the more severe types. Frequently Asked Questions If you have cervical dysplasia or you are worried about contracting this condition due to human papillomavirus infection, you have probably encountered some questions in this regard. For this reason, we have raised some of your frequently asked questions and provided their answers. Can cervical dysplasia be treated? In about 90% of cases, this complication can be treated by removing and removing the abnormal cells. Dysplasia rarely turns into cervical cancer. Its progress is very slow and the doctor can take the necessary measures during this time. Is cervical dysplasia the same as cancer? No. Dysplasia is a condition where abnormal or precancerous cells are detected in the cervix. Sometimes the condition of these pre-cancerous cells worsens over time and causes cervical cancer. How is the virus that causes cervical dysplasia transmitted? Human papilloma virus causes cervical dysplasia. This virus is transmitted most of the time through vaginal, anal or oral sex. Sometimes, the virus can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact of an infected person. Does condom sex prevent cervical dysplasia? Sex with a condom is safe and prevents many sexually transmitted diseases. Transmission of the HPV virus is less with condoms, but there is still a possibility of transmission through the skin. Is cervical dysplasia a precursor to cervical cancer? Only about 1% of cases may dysplasia turn into cervical cancer. When this complication is diagnosed, a pap smear test should be performed regularly and treatment measures should be performed if needed. These measures prevent the transformation of abnormal cells into cancer cells. Is it possible to have cervical dysplasia without the HPV virus? No, to have cervical dysplasia, a person must be infected with the HPV virus. But not all people infected with the human papillomavirus develop dysplasia. Factors such as aging, smoking, or a weak immune system increase the risk of dysplasia. Which doctor should we see for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical dysplasia? Cervical dysplasia is a condition where abnormal cells form in the cervix. People who have human papillomavirus are at risk of developing this condition. In most cases, the HPV virus is transmitted through sexual intercourse such as vaginal, anal or oral intercourse. If dysplasia is not treated and managed, it may turn into cancerous cells and a person may develop cervical cancer. In order to prevent cervical cancer, it is necessary for people who have HPV or cervical dysplasia to have regular pap smear tests. If the test shows something suspicious, other tests are needed to detect abnormal or cancerous cells. If the dysplasia is mild, there is usually no need for treatment and only the pap smear test is repeated. But if mild dysplasia does not improve or progresses after two years, treatment should be done. In different treatment methods, the abnormal tissue is removed to prevent the progression of the disease. To get more information about this complication and consultation with a gynecologist, you can go to your doctor’s website. In Doktorto, it is possible to have face-to-face, telephone and online consultations with obstetricians and gynecologists. Your doctor takes care of your health!

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