What is diabetes insipidus and how is it different from diabetes mellitus?



In this article, we will learn about another type of diabetes, the name of which you probably have heard less: diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes is a rare disease in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. DI is not the same as diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. However, without proper treatment, both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus cause constant thirst and frequent urination. People with diabetes mellitus have high blood sugar because the body is unable to use glucose to produce energy. But in people with diabetes insipidus, the blood sugar level is normal, but the kidneys are not able to balance fluids and salt in the body. In this article, we will tell you everything you need to know about this “tasteless” disease! Stay with us. Table of contents (click) What is the reason for naming diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus literally means excreting a large amount of tasteless, tasteless and sugar-free urine. This disease is very rare among people, but many patients with pituitary disease have this type of diabetes. The term “tasteless” was originally used long before the development of modern medicine to differentiate the disease from diabetes mellitus or “sweet” diabetes, in which the urine is sweet because of its high sugar content. Of course, it is quite obvious from the coverage of medical news that diabetes mellitus is very common and the number of people suffering from it is increasing year by year all over the world and in Iran. Insipidus and Mellitus are old names that were first used before any real understanding of the underlying causes of diabetes types. have been invented The word “diabetes” is derived from Greek literature and refers to excessive urine production, which occurs in sweet and tasteless diabetes if not controlled. In the past, people who had frequent urination were considered as possible diabetes patients. Those with high levels of sugar in their urine were classified as diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus and those with low levels of sugar in their urine were classified as diabetes insipidus. In the following, you will learn more about this type of diabetes. Diabetes insipidus means passing a large amount of tasteless, tasteless and sugar-free urine. What are the types of diabetes insipidus and what are their causes? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disease and occurs when your kidneys are unable Do not store water. This leads to extreme thirst and frequent tasteless, dilute and odorless urine. A healthy adult normally urinates between 1 and 3 liters per day. People with diabetes insipidus may excrete 20 liters of urine per day. There are different types of diabetes insipidus and they can often be treated successfully. Central diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, dipsogenic diabetes insipidus, gestational diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus is the most common type of diabetes. This disease is caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. This damage means that antidiuretic hormone cannot be produced, stored or released normally. Without antidiuretic hormone, a large amount of fluid is released in the urine. Central diabetes insipidus is often the result of the following: a blow to the head conditions that cause swelling of the brain brain tumors any type of surgery that affects the pituitary gland or hypothalamus lack of blood supply to the pituitary gland rare genetic conditions nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be genetic or acquired. Some genetic mutations can damage the kidneys and make them unable to respond to antidiuretic hormone. Other possible causes of kidney damage and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include: drugs such as lithium or tetracycline (acromycin V) urinary tract obstruction electrolyte imbalances such as excess calcium or potassium deficiency chronic kidney disease, in rare cases dipsogenic diabetes insipidus dipsogenic diabetes insipidus due to A disturbance in the thirst mechanism occurs in the hypothalamus, which can cause the production of large amounts of dilute urine from drinking large volumes of fluids. Primary polydipsia can be caused by damage to the thirst regulation mechanism in the hypothalamus. This disease is also associated with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Treatment with antidiuretic hormone is contraindicated in patients with dipsogenic diabetes insipidus due to the fear of water intoxication. Also, the belief that all patients with dyspogenic diabetes insipidus have a mental disorder is completely wrong. Gestational diabetes insipidus Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs only during pregnancy and occurs when an enzyme made by the placenta breaks down the mother’s antidiuretic hormone. it destroys. The placenta plays an important role in the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the fetus and the mother. Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs when increased levels of prostaglandin (a hormone-like chemical) make the kidneys less sensitive to antidiuretic hormone. This disease should be resolved after pregnancy. Gestational diabetes insipidus only occurs during pregnancy. What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus or DI? Urinating at night Pale and odorless urine Low sugar in urine The patient’s tendency to consume cold drinks Dehydration Weakness Muscle pain Heart pain With dehydration, the following symptoms may also appear in you: Extreme thirst: Often drink more than 1 gallon of liquid per day Fatigue Feeling weak Dizziness Vomiting Loss of consciousness Many of The mentioned symptoms are also seen in younger people. In infants, watch out for the following: In children, symptoms include: drinking a lot of water, urinating hourly at night, or waking up to urinate, dehydration, low energy, What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus? Severe weight loss, fatigue, frequent headaches, low blood pressure, kidney damage, brain damage, diabetes insipidus can cause an imbalance in minerals in the blood, such as sodium and potassium (electrolytes), which maintain fluid balance in your body. Symptoms of electrolyte imbalance may include the following: Weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, dizziness, diabetes insipidus has complications such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. How can diabetes insipidus be diagnosed? Your doctor will talk to you about your symptoms and determine Which test do you need? Your doctor may use several tests to diagnose this type of diabetes. Urine Gravity Test First, your doctor will take a sample of your urine to test the concentration of salt and other waste materials, known as a urine specific gravity test. If you have diabetes insipidus, your urine sample will have a high concentration of water and a low concentration of other waste products. Water deprivation test You will be asked to stop drinking water and liquids for a certain period of time before the water deprivation test. Then you take blood and urine samples, and the doctor measures changes in the following: blood sodium levels blood osmolality levels, which show whether dissolved particles (such as minerals and chemicals) are present antidiuretic hormone levels urine output urine composition body weight In addition to measuring hormone levels Diuretics Your doctor may give you a synthetic antidiuretic hormone during the test to see if your kidneys respond to the hormone as expected. The water deprivation test is done under close supervision, and some people may need to be hospitalized to make sure it’s done safely. MRI During an MRI, a machine uses magnets and radio waves to take pictures of your brain tissue. . Your doctor will then look at these images to see if damage to brain tissue is causing your symptoms. Your doctor will also look closely at images of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland to look for any damage or abnormalities. During an MRI, a machine uses magnets and radio waves to take pictures of your brain tissue. Genetic screening Genetic screening to find an inherited type of diabetes insipidus It is based on your family history. What are the treatments for diabetes insipidus? In acute and acquired forms of the disease, treatment often focuses on correcting the underlying cause, such as stopping the medication that caused it. In other cases, drugs regulate the mechanism of thirst and the amount of urine released. The following methods are recommended for the treatment of diabetes insipidus: Changing the diet The first line of treatment is changing the diet. Doctors and nutritionists usually recommend a low-sodium, low-protein diet for adults. These dietary changes should help reduce urine output. Saying goodbye to diabetes forever is the way to control diabetes, high mobility and having a healthy diet. These two basic principles help not only to control diabetes, but also to treat many other diseases. To get the diet, just click on the link below. Recommends coffee. Babies with NDI need to be closely monitored because their tiny bodies don’t hold much fluid. Babies with NDI should be given water regularly and between feedings to prevent dehydration. Medications If dietary changes do not help reduce your urine output, your doctor may recommend the following medications: Desmopressin Desmopressin is a synthetic form of ADH that Can be used to treat nongenetic NDI. Diuretics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs and thiazide diuretics can help treat NDI. However, both drugs are manufactured for other uses and are used off-label to treat NDI. Off-label use of a drug means that a drug that is approved by the FDA for one purpose is used for another purpose that is not approved. However, your doctor can prescribe the drug that he or she thinks is best for you. to prescribe Diuretics and NSAIDs work by different mechanisms to increase the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys. These changes reduce the volume of urine. Diuretics: Diuretics can help regulate the amount of water excreted from the body in the urine. Thiazide diuretics work by increasing the amount of water and sodium reabsorbed by the kidney, which decreases urine volume. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, can decrease urine output in people with NDI. NSAIDs can decrease urine output. Intravenous hydration In severe cases of this disease, the patient may need intravenous hydration. Also, a liquid containing 5% glucose may be injected intravenously to the patient. What is the hereditary rate of diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus can generally be acquired or inherited. The acquired form is caused by some drugs, chronic diseases and other conditions that we mentioned earlier and can occur at any time of life. The hereditary form is caused by genetic mutations, and its signs and symptoms usually appear in the first few months of life. Babies with this hereditary diabetes may eat poorly and fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (growth delay). They may also be irritable and experience fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. In fact, frequent episodes of dehydration can lead to a delay in the child’s growth. If not managed well, over time it can damage the bladder and kidneys, leading to pain, infection, and kidney failure. With proper treatment, affected people usually have few complications and have a normal lifespan. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which occurs at the time of birth or shortly after, usually has a hereditary (genetic) cause that impairs the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine permanently. it changes. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus usually affects men; Although women can pass this gene on to their children. Ways to Prevent Diabetes Insipidus Often times, diabetes insipidus is a permanent condition and you probably can’t prevent it from happening. This disease is often associated with other health problems such as abnormal kidney function or tumors. However, even if diabetes insipidus cannot be prevented in these cases, its symptoms can often be managed. Of course, there are some effective measures for the primary prevention of this diabetes: reducing salt consumption, avoiding lithium and other drugs that can have harmful effects on the kidney. Is diabetes insipidus dangerous in pregnancy? be checked by a consultant in the clinic by monitoring serum electrolytes. They should also receive an anesthetization examination before delivery, and their delivery should be managed by senior obstetrician and anesthesiology personnel. Early diagnosis and effective management of this disease will reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Untreated or undiagnosed gestational diabetes insipidus can have serious consequences for the pregnant mother and the fetus. Methods of controlling diabetes insipidus from the point of view of traditional medicine Traditional medicine offers several strategies to manage this diabetes, which of course we recommend you along with them. Be sure to follow advanced medical treatment. However, in traditional medicine, a lot of emphasis is placed on drinking plenty of water, which is also confirmed by modern medicine. Daily consumption of lime, honey, and almond milk is another way that traditional medicine recommends to control this diabetes. Also, some sages believe that tangerines are bad for diabetes sufferers, which of course does not have much scientific basis. As we said, so far there is no cure for this diabetes, but managing the symptoms of this disease under the supervision of a doctor is not difficult. For example, medicine can help prevent constant thirst and excessive urination caused by this disease. Prevention of the symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes will greatly help your quality of life and affected patients will usually have a relatively normal life with a normal lifespan.

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