What is nephrotic syndrome? What are the symptoms and how is it treated?

Nephrotic syndrome is a set of symptoms that indicate that the kidneys are not working properly. When the filtering and cleaning of blood in the kidneys is disturbed, the symptoms of this syndrome appear. If your doctor has told you that you have this syndrome, or if you have been diagnosed with kidney abnormalities, stay with us in this article. Next, we will explain, what is nephrotic syndrome? What symptoms does it cause in the body? Why do some people suffer from this kidney disorder? Which risk factors increase the risk of developing this condition? How can it be recognized? What are the ways to treat it? And if this syndrome is not treated, what complications will follow? If you have symptoms related to this syndrome or have kidney problems, be sure to visit a kidney and urinary tract doctor or a nephrologist for a detailed examination and timely diagnosis of the disease. You can contact the best doctors through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome is actually not a kidney disease. This syndrome includes a set of symptoms that arise due to kidney dysfunction. A part of the kidney called glomeruli is responsible for blood purification. Small blood vessels in the kidneys are part of this system. These vessels clean waste materials and excess water from the blood and send them to the bladder. Finally, these waste materials are removed from the body through urine. When these blood vessels that filter the blood have problems, too much protein enters the urine and symptoms related to nephrotic syndrome appear. This syndrome can occur in both adults and children. Nephrotic syndrome is a set of symptoms caused by kidney dysfunction. When the blood vessels in the kidney do not work properly, a lot of protein enters the urine and the person suffers from nephrotic syndrome. Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome This syndrome can cause the following signs and symptoms in a person: severe swelling, especially around the eyes and ankles (edema) foamy urine (due to the presence of a lot of protein in the urine, which is called proteinuria) weight gain The reason for fluid retention, fatigue, loss of appetite, high fat and cholesterol in the blood, which is called hyperlipidemia. Low level of albumin in the blood. If you have such symptoms, be sure to see a urologist. The specialist prescribes the necessary tests to diagnose nephrotic syndrome. You can contact the best doctors through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. Nephrotic syndrome causes fluid accumulation in the body and swelling around the eyes and ankles. What is the cause of nephrotic syndrome? The causes of this syndrome are divided into two categories: Primary nephrotic syndrome: a condition that only affects the kidneys themselves. Secondary nephrotic syndrome: when the problem is related to another part of the body and affects the kidneys. The main causes of this condition include the following. Minimal change disease: the cause of this syndrome in children is this disease. In this situation, the tissue of the kidneys under the microscope is completely normal and the cause of the dysfunction is not known. Conditions such as viral infections, allergic reactions, and the use of medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause minimal change disease. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): This disease causes scarring of the glomeruli. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults is this disease. Things like HIV virus, some drugs, genetic mutations, obesity, high blood pressure and vascular diseases cause FSGS disease. Membranous nephropathy: In this disease, the membrane of glomeruli thickens. Its cause can be PLA2R antibody, cancer, malaria, hepatitis or lupus. Diabetes: It is the most common secondary cause of this disease. Diabetes damages the kidneys and causes diabetic nephropathy. Lupus: Lupus is a chronic disease of the immune system and can damage the kidneys. Amyloidosis: In this condition, amyloid proteins accumulate in the blood and cause damage to the kidneys. Risk factors of nephrotic syndrome Some factors can increase the risk of developing this disease. Among them: medical conditions: some diseases and medical conditions such as diabetes, lupus, amyloidosis and kidney diseases can increase the possibility of developing this condition. Some drugs: drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-infective drugs increase the risk. Infections: Infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and malaria increase the risk. Some diseases, medications and infections can damage the kidneys and cause symptoms of nephrotic syndrome. Complications of Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome may cause complications if left untreated. The most common complications of this syndrome are: blood clotting: when the glomeruli have problems filtering the blood, a large amount of blood proteins are lost and the possibility of blood clots increases. Blood cholesterol and triglycerides increase: the albumin protein level in The blood is reduced and because of this, the liver produces more albumin. As a result, the liver releases more cholesterol and triglycerides and the person may suffer from high cholesterol. Malnutrition: loss of blood protein causes malnutrition. The weight has decreased, but the edema hides it. High blood pressure: the accumulation of fluids in the body causes high blood pressure. Acute kidney injury: when the glomeruli have problems, blood filtering is impaired and waste materials accumulate in the blood. In this situation, emergency dialysis may be needed. Chronic kidney disease: Over time, the function of the kidneys may suffer and eventually the person needs dialysis or a kidney transplant. Infection: These patients are more likely to get infections. According to kidneyfund regarding the threatening complications of nephrotic syndrome: With nephrotic syndrome, cholesterol also accumulates in your blood. When cholesterol levels get too high in the blood, plaques form inside the veins and arteries, which can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. Diagnosing nephrotic syndrome To diagnose nephrotic syndrome, the following tests must be performed. Urine test: In the urine test, the amount of protein excretion and other kidney abnormalities are determined. Blood test: One of the first tests that the kidney doctor prescribes for these patients is the kidney function test. A blood test detects a low level of albumin and blood protein. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase in these patients. For this reason, these factors are measured in addition to the level of creatinine and urea nitrogen. Kidney biopsy: To take a sample of the kidney, a needle is inserted through the skin to be examined in the laboratory. After the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome, the doctor may prescribe other tests such as diabetes test to diagnose the secondary cause. If you have kidney problems, be sure to see a urologist or nephrologist for a timely diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome or other kidney disorders. You can contact the best doctors through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, Doktorto also offers online and telephone consultations. How is nephrotic syndrome treated? The treatment of nephrotic syndrome depends on its cause. The doctor must diagnose the cause of the syndrome and take the necessary measures to treat it. Also, to improve the symptoms and complications of this syndrome, such as reducing cholesterol, blood pressure, and edema, therapeutic measures should be taken. Treatment usually includes the following. Blood pressure treatment: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drugs reduce blood pressure and protein released in the urine. Drugs such as lisinopril, benazepril and enalapril are among these drugs. Cholesterol-lowering drugs: statins are prescribed to reduce cholesterol. Anticoagulant drugs: are prescribed to reduce the possibility of blood clots. Heparin, warfarin, dabigatran and rivaroxaban are such drugs. Diuretic pills: Diuretic drugs are prescribed to increase urination. As a result, swelling (edema) is reduced. Immunosuppressive drugs: drugs such as corticosteroids can control the immune system and reduce inflammation. To treat nephrotic syndrome, the cause of its occurrence must be treated. To treat its symptoms and complications, blood pressure medications, blood lipid medications, anticoagulants, and immunosuppressive medications are prescribed. Diuretic tablets are prescribed to reduce swelling in these patients. What should be the diet of nephrotic syndrome? A proper diet can help control the symptoms and complications of nephrotic syndrome. For this reason, it is better to consult with a nutritionist to follow a basic diet. You can use the services of your doctor’s website to consult with a nutritionist in person, over the phone, or online. Your nutritionist may recommend the following in your diet: Try to use lean protein. Vegetable protein is useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Reduce the amount of fat and cholesterol in your food. Eat a low-salt diet to reduce body swelling. Adhering to a basic diet is very effective in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. Your Frequently Asked Questions If you have nephrotic syndrome or suspicious cases have been seen in your test, you have probably encountered questions about this condition. For this reason, we have raised some of your frequently asked questions and provided their answers. Is nephrotic syndrome dangerous? This complication can be dangerous if not treated. Complications such as blood clotting, high blood pressure and high cholesterol can cause serious harm to a person. Also, this complication can cause acute kidney damage. In this situation, dialysis or kidney transplant is needed. Does nephrotic syndrome have a definitive treatment? Nephrotic syndrome can be cured by identifying the cause of this syndrome and treating it. Of course, there are treatment options to improve the symptoms and complications of this disease. After diagnosis, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. Which diseases may cause nephrotic syndrome? Various diseases and infections such as diabetes, minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, lupus, hepatitis and amyloidosis can increase the possibility of this syndrome. How is nephrotic syndrome in children? Nephrotic syndrome can affect anyone of any age. But this disease is usually diagnosed in children between 2 and 5 years old. The incidence of this condition is higher in boys than in girls. According to the obtained statistics, one person out of every 50,000 children has this syndrome. In children, the risk of kidney failure is usually low. In some children, nephrotic syndrome is hereditary and affects kidney function more. These children may suffer from kidney failure. Does nephrotic syndrome cause high blood pressure? Nephrotic syndrome causes fluid accumulation in the body due to impaired kidney function. In addition to swelling, this condition causes high blood pressure, especially in the ankles. To control blood pressure, the doctor prescribes the necessary drugs. Does diabetes cause nephrotic syndrome? Diabetes is one of the secondary causes of this syndrome. This disease can be considered the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome. Diabetes damages the kidneys over time. This damage eventually leads to nephrotic syndrome, which is called diabetic nephropathy. Does nephrotic syndrome cause lung infection? In this condition, due to the loss of infection-fighting proteins called immunoglobulin, the possibility of contracting any type of infection increases. In these patients, the possibility of lung infection (pneumonia) and meningitis is high. How is nephrotic syndrome in pregnancy? Nephrotic syndrome during pregnancy can be dangerous for both the mother and the fetus. High blood pressure or abnormal kidney function may cause pregnancy complications including miscarriage or premature birth. But if the mother’s blood pressure is normal and kidney function is not affected, pregnancy can be completed without complications. Which doctor should we see for the diagnosis and treatment of nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome is caused by kidney disorders. The set of symptoms that occur after kidney damage are the cause of this syndrome. In these patients, the excretion of protein from the urine is too high and it becomes difficult to filter the waste materials from the blood. These patients have severe swelling in the ankles and around the eyes, have high blood pressure, lose their appetite, and have high blood lipids. If left untreated, nephrotic syndrome can cause serious complications such as blood clots, infection, high blood pressure, and acute kidney damage. For this reason, the necessary tests, including urine and blood tests, should be done immediately. Treatment depends on the cause of the disease. When you visit a kidney and urinary tract specialist, after diagnosing this syndrome, he prescribes the necessary tests to diagnose its cause. To find the best urology doctor and nephrology specialist, you can apply through your doctor’s website. In addition to the face-to-face appointment system, there is the possibility of online and telephone consultation with a specialist. Your doctor takes care of your health!

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